Summary of the book written by P.D. Leedy and J.E. Ormrod, Practical Research: Planning and Design. It deals with the basic research methodology. How to plan a research project in engineering? How to write a report?
[...] Look at how other authors have organized literature reviews to the topic. Synthesize: pull together diverse perspectives and research results read into a cohesive whole: Compare and contrast carrying theoretical perspective on the topic Show how approaches have changed over time Describe general trends in research ﬁndings Identify discrepant and contradictory ﬁndings, suggest possible explanations for such discrepancies. Identify general themes that run throughout the literature GUIDELINES: WRITING A CLEAR AND COHESIVE LITERATURE REVIEW. 1.Get the proper psychological orientation: be clear in the thinking. [...]
[...] The posttest scores on the critical thinking test improved signiﬁcantly from the pretest scores. Based on her ﬁndings, the researcher felt conﬁdent in generalizing the data from her sample of 100 students to apply to the characteristics of the general population of undergraduate students. Generalizing data taken from a sample to describe the characteristics of a larger population is an example of what kind of reasoning? Inductive reasoning In inductive reasoning, people use speciﬁc instances or occurrences to draw conclusions about entire classes of objects or events. [...]
[...] In the appendices The appendices of a research proposal includes information such as cover letters, consent forms, measurement instruments, and other detailed materials. Appendices provide an easy way to present detailed information that is not central to points that need to be made in the body of the proposal. 7.Jenna wrote a grant application asking for funds to "investigate American eating habits that might contribute to obesity." Her proposal was not funded. Based on this information alone, which of the following weaknesses depicted in Figure 6.3 of the textbook (see p. [...]
[...] Front matter and end matter Front matter: content that precedes the introductory ﬁrst chapter End matter: content that follows the ﬁnal chapter XII .Preliminary pages Order: Title page, author, university aﬃliation, date, In a thesis: page for signatures of the faculty advisor and research committee, Abstract, dedication, Table of contents, lists of any tables and ﬁgures, preface Copyright information on the title page: protection given by law to the authors of literary, dramatic, musical, artistic works. Thesis protected by copyright Abstract: summary of the entire research eﬀort in a paragraph or two. For a journal article: 100 to 200 words; for a dissertation: 350 words or less. Should include suﬃcient information about research problem, methodology, results, interpretation. Will be include in abstracts collections so must be clear, precise and succinct. [...]
[...] Objective 7.4 : Describe the processes and strategies involved in organizing and analyzing the data from qualitative studies. Objective 7.5 : Describe the criteria for evaluating qualitative research. Qualitative research: Focus on phenomena that occur in natural settings = real world Study these phenomena in all their complexity Issue has many dimensions and layers, a multifaceted form In many disciplines: anthropology, sociology, biology, medicine . Qualitative researchers: Rarely simplify what they observe Strive for objectivity in their research but in some cases an objective approach (to studying human events) is neither desirable nor even possible = instrument Believe that there is a single Truth to be discovered What needs to be studied : when little information exists on a topic, when variables are unknown, when a relevant theory base is inadequate or missing, a qualitative study can help deﬁne what’s important VII.1. [...]